il monumento Azadi  

Tehran Facts and Figures
Geographical status:
Longitude: 51, 25
Latitude: 35, 43
Altitude: 1191 m above sea level
Average annual temperature: 17/1 degree
Diagram for mean annual temperature(1994) of Tehran
Hottest month: August with 32/5 degree
coldest month: January with 4/0 degree
Average annual precipitation: 231 mm
Maximum precipitation in one day: 40 mm
Average relation humidity: morning: %48 noon: %30
Average number of freezing day: 49 day
Population(1996): 6794348

The Bazaar of Tehran
The Bazaar of Tehran leads to former Buzarjomehri avenue from the north and to Molavi avenue from the
south, from the east it leads to Mostafa Khomaini avenue and from the west it has access to Khayam avenue.
The bazaar of Tehran was founded in the pre-Safavid era (1499 -1723). and was later extended by Shah
Tahmasb of Safvid era. Two large and small intersections link different sections of the bazaar. Structure_wise
the bazaar of Tehran is very complicated and is composed of smaller bazaars like the cloth sellers, shoe
sellers, gold and jewellery sellers, blacksmiths, carpet sellers, etc.
In the Iranian society a bazaar resembles the heart in the body, where the active streams of economic
existence lead to the relaxation which is felt in the spiritual mosque built in the center of it. Though this
dynamic and ancient tradition is just fading away, an Iranian citizen however still respects bazaar as the major
center for trade, since the highest quality goods are found there at fair prices. There a customer negotiates the
prices, is briefed and informed of various events and confers with friends and relatives. This is a place where
weddings take place and of course when time is appropriate people attend the mosque to pray. All these
activities are carried out in the covered 8 kilometer wide area of the Tehran Bazaar. Commercial goods are
carried by porters all throughout the narrow and vast passways and chambers and aisles of Tehran bazaar
and the traders and businessmen in their shops and chambers get engaged in trade and deals. The bazaar is
a crowded region where the customers and shop keepers deal in loud voices.
Darvazeh Arg (The Gate to the Citadel)
Darvazeh Arg is a monument belonging to the Qajar era 1785-1819 in Semnan. The main structure of the
gate has been made of brick and is over 5 meters high. The ceilings of the rooms are brick-made and the
ceiling of the main aisle is dome like invisible from outside. The Northern structure has been built on a
brick-made foundation 75 centimeters high and the two-storey tiled columns on the sides of the doorway are
larger than the other four columns and come in a height of 11.5 meters. The smaller columns however are
almost 10.5 meters high. Below the plate and under the scene which demonstrates the combat between
Rostam and the demon, there is a crescent-like painting of the Qajar soldiers and a cannon.
The gates of Darvazeh Arg are made of thick lumbers connected with big nails. The Arg used to have a
southern gate as well however it is not in evidence any longer and has been totally ruined.

Golestan Palace
This palace has been named Golestan (flower garden) because it is located in a large garden which once
used to be one of Tehran's most beautiful gardens. This complex is composed of many palaces, halls and
porticos. In the northern section of Golestan palace, there is a hall which is known as Salaam hall or Otagh - e
- Moozeh. In this hall the official reception ceremonies during the era of Naserredin Shah of Qajar dynasty
were held and the title was chosen to indicate that the royal jeweleries and Naserredin Shah's gems were kept
in this place. The building is said to have been built in 1876. A famous gem kept in this museum includes
Darya - ye - Noor diamond, a gem brought home by Nader Shah of Afshar dynasty as booty.
The gem originally weighed 780 carats and when cut came to weigh 270 carats.
One of the other famous halls in Golestan palace complex is Ayeneh (mirror) hall which is linked to Salaam
hall. The building of this hall was completed in 1877. The decoration of the hall took almost five years. Another
very precious object, Takht - e - Tavus (peacock throne) is composed of 4527 small and large peices of
diamonds and gems exhibited at this hall. Other halls in Golestan complex include Ivory hall of Sofreh Khaneh
and then Berelian (brilliant) hall and Tashrifat (ceremonies) hall.
There also used to be another hall called Narenjestan (orangery) which was destroyed during the reign of
Reza Shah and in its place there was built a building to render reception services to foreign guests. This
building was known as Elizabeth palace.
Other monuments inside the Golestan Palace include Shams - ol - Emareh palace,the hall of Golestan
museum palace, Abyaz palace, Eivan - e - Takht - e - Marmar, Karim Khani Eivan and the Wind Tower
Address; 15th Khordad square, Tehran
Tel; 3113335 - 8

Vank Cathedral
This cathedral is very famous among other churches in Jolfa of Isfahan in so far as the architecture and artistic
decorations are concerned. Vank church was built on another church constructed in 1605 A.D.
There are many inscriptions inside and outside the church whose contents invite the readers to pray for the
constructor of the church and his descendants.
The inscriptions also suggest that the church has been built in 1692. during the reign of Shah Abbas the

Shams - ol - Emareh Palace
This palace is located in the eastern section of Golestan palace and belongs to the era of Nassereddin Shah.
The king was inspired in one of his visits abroad, by the multi - storey buildings he observed there. The
building was constructed by Doost Ali Khan Moayerrol Mamalek in 1865 - 1867 . The structure of the building
is strong and the symmetries have been formed beautifully. The building is brick made with thick walls. In
some cases the thickness of the basement walls exceeds 600 centimeters and the thickness of the ground
floor walls stands in the range of 510, 150 and 120 centimeters.
Shamsol Emareh has been the tallest royal building with three stories and two towers on the top. This building
used to serve as a place for official receptions and also the private harem of Nassereddin Shah. In his book
entitled Meraat - ol - Boldan, Etemad - ol - Saltaneh describes its halls and chambers all equipped with high
quality and premium curtains, chandeliers and posters.
Address; Golestan palace complex, 15th Khordad Square
Tel; 3113335 - 8

Kandovan Village
Kandovan, the historical and unique village of Osku district is located 22 kilometers south of Osku in a
beautiful and vegetated valley through which a big river flows. Kandovan is only 62 kilometers from Tabriz.
Kandovan village is located in the northern skirts of Arshad Dagh mountain and west of the Sahand
mountainous mass. The village houses have been totally built on the eastern bank of the Kandovan river. 245
families composed of 1250 people live in Kandovan village. About 200 families residing in this village have
built their homes in the depth of the conical and pyramid - like rock masses. The houses in this village enjoy a
rock style of architecture which is attributed to the 13th century AD or even to the pre - Islamic era. The
thickness, quality and layers of hills and conical masses is a consquence of the mixture of volcanic
substances of Sahand with the mud produced as a result of heavy downpours. The height of these conical and
pyramid - like hills exceeds 60 meters. Besides the rustic sitting rooms, two mosques with two stone columns
and over one hundred storerooms and sheepcotes have been dug inside the cones. Inside every cone
something between two to four stories have been built and the village streets are in fact none but the strips
produced as a result of water corrosion. The Lahar and Inembrite layers are called Kiran in Kandovan village
and in all other villages located in Sahandabad region. The village is famous for its spa which flows out of a hill
on the left bank of the river and the local people believe the mineral water here is very useful to heal kidney

The Contemporary Arts Museum
The structure of the Museum of contemporary arts which was opened in 1977 is a combination of traditional
and modern architectural styles. The museum is composed of three stories and a number of galleries and the
items exhibited here vary accordingly. In three galleries of the museum, the works of contemporary Iranian
and foreign artists are exhibited. Lecture hall, restaurant, paper stand, photography workshop, cinema and
specialized library are also there to render services. This museum, affiliated to the ministry of Islamic
guidance is an art museum exhibiting such items as paintings, caligraphy, statues, pictures and books.
Address; Next to Laleh Park, Northern Kargar Ave, Tehran
Open, 9 to 12 a.m and 13 to 17 p.m
Tel; 655411 - 653200