Shiraz Facts and Figures
Geographical status:
Longitude: 29, 37
Latitude: 52, 32
Altitude: 1491 m above sea level
Average annual temperature: 17/3 degree
Diagram for mean annual temperature(1994) of Shiraz
Hottest month: August with 30/2 degree
coldest month: January with 5/6 degree
Average annual precipitation: 307 mm
Maximum precipitation in one day: 107 mm
Average relation humidity: morning: %53 noon: %27
Average number of freezing day: 54 day
Population(1996): 1423805
Bagh - e - Eram (garden of paradise)
Eram garden is located in the center of Shiraz on the side of Eram street. This garden was made by a leader of
the Qashqai tribe known as Mohammad Ali Khan Ilkhani during the early 18th century. About 75 years later,
Nasirolmolk bought the garden and Haj Mohammad Hassan, the prominent architect built its three storey
building. This monument is a masterpiece from the Qajar dynasty in so far as architecture, painting, carvinf,
tiling and stuccowork are concerned.
The lower sections of the building's exterior are formed of 2 - meter - high plain and carved stones and on the
eight columns there is the exihibt of two Qajar soldiers ans six inscriptions. The inscriptions have been
inscribed by Mirza Ali Naghi Khoshnevis in Nastaligh style of writing. In the portal of the building there are
three large and two small sessions. The spring which flows in the waterfronts right in the middle of the building
pours into ponds and grants Eram garden a great appeal. The cypress tree in this garden is quite famous.

Persepolis (Takht-e Jamshid)
The ruins of Persepolis are remnants of the brilliant civilization of ancient Iran. Persepolis is located 50
kilometers North of Shiraz and only ten kilometers from Marvdasht city, in the western slope of the Rahmat
mountain. Unlike its title Persepolis has nothing to do with Jamshid, a mythical ancient king of Iran. The
complex was entitled Takht-e Jamshid because the people had no information about the date of its
construction and therefore attributed it to Jamshid, an epical hero.
According to the content of the manuscript existing on the walls of Persepolis the founder of this gigantic
complex has been Darius the First (521-468 B.C.) and in later stages Xerexes and the succeeding kings of the
Achaemenid up to Artaxerexes the Third (359-338 B.C.) have completed it.
This glorious and splendid palace, used to serve as the summer resort of the Achaemenid kings and their
relatives. This complex was totally ruined when Alexander the Macedonian invaded it and what is left from it
includes the entrance to the palace, the grand stairway and the entrance to the one hundred column palace,
the southern portion of the Apadana palace, the three gate palace, Tachar palace, Xerexes palace. The
Persepolis platform facing the western plateau is almost 457 meters long and its width in the north and the
south equals two thirds of its length. The platform has been made of local grey stones and the stones applied
in the body of the platform consist of numerous sides. Large pieces of stone have been cut and applied in this
complex. These stones are linked with lead or iron connections and joints.
According to Girschman, the Persepolis complex used to have only one high wall in the eastern section in
order to prevent the rainfloods which flowed from the mountain heights. The other sides of the platform were
coverd with shorter walls and watch towers. The only entrance to the platrorm and the Persepolis palace was
through the western section. Close to the northern side, there are two stairways. A short corrugated wall
covers the exterior of the stairways. These stairs are 7 meters wide and only ten centimeters high. The
number of stairs from each side is 111. The stairways rise gradually in a manner that even horses can easily
climb them and reach the surface of the platform.
Although none of the buildings have identical plans, most of them follow a similar layout, consisting of a
central columned hall with a portico of two rows at the front. There are either subsidiary rooms or columned
porticos on the sides, and there are often further rooms at the back. Most of the palaces face north, but Darius'
palace and the palace of Artaxerxes III face south, perhaps because they were intended for use in winter
rather than in summer.
Each building was carefully designated, and it is probable that plans were drawn with the dimensions labelled
in exact numbers of units. From marks on the platforms of Darius' and Xerxes' palace, and from
measurements on the other buildings we know that the units used were a cubit of roughly 52.1 centimeters, a
foot of roughly 34.8 centimeters, and a palm of roughly 8.7 centimeters, in the ratio of 6:4:1, a system of
measurement which may have been borrowed from Mesopotamia.
Most buildings on the terrace were constructed in the reigns of Darius I, his son Xerxes I, and his grandson
Artaxerxes I. Thereafter, only minor additions were made during the reign of Artaxerxes III.
Inside the reception platform first came the Nations Gate which had been constructed during the era of Xerxes
and in front of the gate there existed two stone-made winged cows appearing in the form of two thickly
bearded men wearing Babylonian hats symbolizing the divine guards of the palace. After passing through the
gate, the audience reached a rather small hall supported by four columns in the center. In this hall in addition
to the entrance gate, there also existed two exit gates about the same size, one to the south and the other to
the east. The southern gate had access to the grand Apadana hall which was a building constructed by
Xerxes. The eastern gate which faced the entrance gate and used to serve as a passway for other royal
nations namely all but the Parthians and the Medes, had access to the One-Hundred Column palace. This
palace belongs to the era of Darius the first and before the Apadana palace was built, this palace used to
serve as the only grand hall of the Persepolis. There was a public audience on the occasion of the new year in
this palace and in its rear part was located the royal treasury.
Map of the Darius is located in the west of Perspolis.The Tachar palace of Darius is located in the west of the
platrorm and to the east is located the Three Gate palace of Xerxes. Behind these buildings a prominent
feature is the Xerxes, Queen Palace. All the buildings here are divided into the northern and southern
sections' Apadana and the official section in the North and the palaces and other buildings in the south, all
linked to one another. The structure of the remains of the ancient palaces all have many engravings and
inscriptions. The engravings of Perspolis show influences of the Egyption and Greek arts. The arts of the
regions adjacent to Iran, namely Elam, Phoenicia, Ourartu and the lands of Scythians and Medes have had
their own effect, however little, on the arts of the Achaemenids. There are many inscriptions on the walls of
Persepolis, and the translation of two inscriptions are as followes;
The inscription on the southern platrorm of Persepolis;
Saith Darius the king; this country of Persia which Ahura Mazda bestowed upon me, is a good land which
possesses good horses and good men. By the favor of Ahura Mazda and of my own good deed, Darius the
king, does not fear any enemy.
Saith Darius the king; may Ahura Mazda bear me aid, with the gods of the royal house, and may Ahura Mazda
protect this country from a hostile army, from famine, from the lie, upon this country may there not come an
army nor famine nor the lie this I pray as a boon from Ahura Mazda together with the gods of the royal house.
This boon may Ahura Mazda together with the gods of the royal house give to me.
The content of a golden inscription of the Apadana palace now kept in the Iran-e Bastan (ancient Iran)
museum reads as follows;
Saith Darius the King; This is the kingdom which I hold from the Scythians who are beyond Sogdiana, hence
unto Ethiopia, from Sind, hence unto Sardis which Ahura Mazda the greatest of gods bestowed upon me. Me
may Ahura Mazda protect and my royal house.

Pasargadae and the tomb of Cyrus
The following is a description of a historical zone including the early works from the Achaemenids era 559 -
330 BC:
The reception palace of Cyrus, a palace ornamented with the sculpture of a winged man, private palace,
Takht - e Solayman plate, fire temple and the tomb of Cyrus the great surrounded by a number of Islamic
works and monuments like worship place and mosque left from the 13th and 14th centuries AD. The tomb of
Cyrus is a tall monument built on six layers of stone plates. The building has been built of pieces of white stone
and is 12 meters high. Two cavities exist inside this stone-made tomb. The bigger cavity is known to be the
grave of Cyrus and the smaller cavity belongs to his wife. Significant things are seen inside the place like two
dates and inscriptions from the period of the Fars Atabakan 1215 and 1224 AD. The reception palace of Cyrus
with a large hall and a number of porches and rooms supported by stone columns and an inscirption in
cuneiform script is left in the northeastern section of the tomb. The other palace is ornamented with the exhibit
of a winged man. The exhibit has been carved on white stone. Next is the private palace of Cyprus. This
palace used to enjoy more attractions and exclusive ornamentations, decorations and privileges.
There are other monuments on the side of Pasargadae including the royal fire temple, Takht - e Solayman
and a series of stone made monuments.
For Further information see "Achaemenid Architecture" in "Architecture".

Narengestan - e - Ghavam (Ghavam Orangery)
On the side of the eastern section of Lotf Ali Khan Zand Ave, which divides the city of Shiraz into two parts,
and is called Bala Kafad district, is located the former residence of Ghavam-ol-Molk Shirazi. This complex is
known as Ghavam Orangery because of the large number of orange trees planted in it. The building of this
house was erected in 930 AD by Mohammad Reza Khan Ghavam-ol-Molk and is composed of two sections;
The southern building and the northern building which is Narenjestan's major compound with many halls.
Magnificent and impressive mirror work and paintings can be observed on the walls of the northern halls and
small pieces of mirror have been brought together in the ceiling of the halls. Some of the rooms here have
been decorated and covered with marble stone. Walnut wood has been used in the making of all doors,
entrances and windows ornamented with inlaid work with some shell and colorful glass applied in them
making them impressive.
The windows have been processed and painted to demonstrate the skill and expertise of their producers. On
the forehead of the northern building there are three layers of glazed tile works and mouldings. In the middle
section two lions holding swords keep hold of a screen on which it reads (Nasro Menallahwa Fathon Gharib)
meaning: "Victory is close with the grace of Allah". On the sides of this exhibit there has been printed a gazelle
with two baby gazelles. On the scenes on the sides of this a leopard has been demonstrated which is tearing a
gazelle apart
The background of these three scenes has been ornamented with Eslimi lines.

Masjed - e - Vakil (Vakil Mosque)
Vakil mosque also known as Jaame' mosque, is linked to Vakil bazaar and public bath of Shiraz. The
courtyard is 60 x 60 meters all covered with large pieces of stone. The mosque has two vast Eivans (open
rectangular halls) to the north and south, a magnificent inner courtyard surrounded by beautifully tiled alcoves
and porches and a vaulted mehrab room with 48 impressive columns as well as a remarkable 14 stepped
marble pulpit. The structure of the mosque dates from 1773 AD and has beautiful flora motifs and tilings.

Karim Khani Eivan (portico)
In the northern side of Golestan palace, there is a small portico which is called Karimkhani portico. In the
center of this portico, there is a beautiful hexagonal pond. The ceiling of the Eivan (portico) is covered with
three dome - like covers while all three domes and walls have been ornamented with the tiling style of the
Qajar period. Two rows of six steps lead you to the portico from the garden yard. Some believe, on the order of
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, the bones of Karim Khan Zand were brought here from Shiraz and burried
under these stairways and so this title has been chosen for the place. Of course later on, in 1925, when Reza
Pahlavi came to power, the bones of Karim Khan Zand were removed from under the stairs of Karim Khani
portico and burried in Qom city.
Address; Golestan palace complex, 15th Khordad Square
Tel; 3113335 - 8

Bagh - e - Delgosha (Delgosha garden)
In southern entrance of Tang - e - Sa,di in Shiraz, and beneath Nodar castle, there is a large garden which is
known as Delgosha. The garden is composed of a very large ground area located alongside the Boustan
avenue which leads to the tomb of Sa'di. The walls of the garden is made of mud but the entrance portel is
made of clay brick.
From the entrance of the garden to the building which is located in the center of the garden there is a waterfont
and a cement street. Four streets have been constructed round the building leding to the walls of the garden.
On the sids of some of these streets there are cypress and pine trees. Orange, palm and walnut trees have
been planted in other parts of the garden. There is a large pond right in front of the building. This building has
been erected on a platform and the lower part of the walls is covered with plain stone. The building inside the
garden comes in three stories and the portal is decorated with glaze tiling. The doors of some of the rooms are
quite old. There is an octagonal structure on the first floor in the center of which is located a pond covered with
blue tiles.
The ceiling of the building is a simple dome in the middle of which there is a vent. There are four royal rooms
with four angels on the sides of the octagonal structure.

Takht - e - Solayman
The ancient Takht - e - Solayman complex 45 kilometers norhteast of Takab along with a lake in its center is a
unique collection related to the Solayman prison and serves as one of the most important socio - religious
remains of the Sassanid era hosting the Azar Goshasb firetemple which is known universally. Also some
works from the Achaemenids 559 - 330 BC, the Parthians 250 - 227 BC, the Sassanids 226 - 651 AD and the
Islamic era exist in this complex. Takht - e Solayman is a matter of interest to experts as the largest
establishment from the Sassanids ever discovered.
Takht - e Solayman is the same as the old Shiz which was known as Konzhak by the Sassanids, and Gezga
by the Greek.

Takht - e - Mar Mar (Marble Throne)
Takht - e - Mar Mar Eivan (portico) is located in the northern section of Golestan palace and was founded
during the reign of Karim Khan Zand. The two front columns of the portico were brought to Tehran from the
Karim Khani palaces in Shiraz on the order of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar. Artistic masterpieces have been
applied in the decoration of this portico. In the center of this portico there is Takht - e - Mar Mar (Marble
Throne) which belongs to the era of Fath Ali Shah of Qajar dynasty and was built in 1806.
The legs of the throne constitute the most beautiful parts. Out of these legs, three come in the form of mystical
demons. Also the statues of six angels on the sides shoulder the throne. This throne has two steps in the front
and on the two sides of the first step two cats have been carved and two demons have been carved on the
sides of the steps. On the walls of the throne we observe inscriptions which contain poems of Fath Ali Khan
Saba known as Malak-ol-Sho'ara plated with gold. According to Vaghaye Ettefaghieh, the throne was made in
1855 AD.
In the rear side of the throne there is a vault with a ceiling covered with mirror works and on its right and left,
there exist two arch-like windows. The portico has four doors, two of which open in the northern section on the
side of the large inlaid window and the other two open in the eastern and western sides of the portico. The
western entrance of the hall opens to the Golestan garden. The floor of the portico is covered with marble and
its ceiling is ornamented with large mirros. Such a design has been applied in many other sections of Golestan
palace complex.
Address; Golestan complex. 15th Khordad square
Tel; 3113335 - 8